Block and Jack Planes
Apart from toothed planes, plane along the grain, in a ‘downwards’ direction if possible. Plane along the whole length of a piece of wood, and don’t start part way in — start off the edge so the blade has something to get stuck into from the start.
Move blade to exactly within boundaries, then tighten and tap with small hammer. Check that it bites, and adjust as needed.
Use a surface to set the blade flush with the foot. Tighten up and use fretting hammer – tap the blade once. It should be in a good shaving position. When using, always remember grain direction. Never plane up a slope, always plane down them. Careful not take chips out things you aren’t supposed to.